Blockchain uses a network called “P2P (peer-to-peer)”, which is different from conventional networks. We will introduce the structure, characteristics, and mechanism of P2P (peer-to-peer) networks, and explain how they differ from conventional networks.
P2P (Peer to Peer) Network Structure and Mechanism
The data communication can be roughly divided into the client server method and the P2P network method. The client/server method has been adopted in Internet services so far. Blockchain, on the other hand, forms a P2P network system.
Difference from client server method
The client-server method is that a client requests data, and a central server provides the data.
The P2P network method does not have a central administrator like a client-server method server, and has a structure that allows information to run in all directions within the network.
The P2P network is characterized by nodes (computers) exchanging necessary data with each other, and there are still various trial and error, but famous services are file sharing software Bit Torrent and Skype. I use some P2P.
Also, since each node has a ledger and all of them maintain and monitor it, even if one ledger is damaged, the entire network will not be damaged.
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SPV nodes and full nodes
There are roughly two types of notebooks, “SPV notebook” and “full notebook”. The “SPV notebook” is a lightweight notebook that manages and references only a part of the block chain, and the “full notebook” is a notebook that manages all block chains.
The total block size increases over time because the block chain is a collection of data that is chained from the first block to the latest block.
If the size of data becomes too large, it becomes difficult for low-priced mobile terminals and computers with small capacity to newly enter and handle networks such as Bitcoin. It allows lighter type notebooks like SPV notebooks to allow more people to handle Bitcoin.
On the other hand, full notebooks must communicate data with each other and maintain a complete blockchain, so a copy of the “complete blockchain” that is block-blocked with all transactions is the free space on their heartdisks. I own it. In other words, it is necessary to reserve a certain amount of free space to become a full notebook.
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P2P network strengths
The following are two strengths of P2P networks.
Part 1 No system down due to server down
Part 2 High anonymity
Part 1 There is no system down due to server down
Since the general Internet service, that is, the client-server method needs to stop the server operation due to various things such as database maintenance and software update, the service may be temporarily stopped.
Alternatively, the system may go down due to a failure of the server itself, but in the distributed type of P2P network, even if some of the nodes and networks are down and there is a failure, the network as a whole remains alive. You can go.
When you recover from a down, you can retrieve the data from a healthy node and retain the correct data. With this mechanism, Bitcoin has been running almost accident-free for 10 years.
To bring down such a distributed network, all full nodes must be destroyed. There are currently about 10,000 full nodes in Bitcoin. Although there is a bias in the dispersed areas, it is difficult to destroy all of them because it is well dispersed.
In the world of the Internet, there is always an attack called DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service Attack) that causes a system down, so even if a part of the network goes down, the whole system continues to function. That is very important.
The client-server method targets a central server, which causes a system down, but its strength is that it is resistant to attacks because the P2P network is distributed.
Part 2 Anonymity is high
Another strength is that it is easy to create a highly anonymous network.