‘Aug 1 shootings were pre-planned’

OPPOSITION leader Nelson Chamisa and his deputy party chair Tendai Biti, yesterday distanced their party from involvement in the fatal post-election protests which rocked Harare on August 1, telling the commission of inquiry instead that Zanu PF and the military connived to foment chaos and shoot innocent civilians as part of a grand scheme to retain power “after losing the presidential race” in the July 30 poll.

BY BLESSED MHLANGA

MDC leader Nelson Chamisa yesterday giving evidence on the post-election violence on August 1, 2018 before a commission of inquiry

Appearing before the commission into the shootings chaired by former South African President, Kgalema Motlanthe, the MDC officials, who were accused of fanning the violence which led members of the military to allegedly kill six civilians, set out a new narrative.

Chamisa said the August 1 shootings and violence were carried out by some elements in Zanu PF in collusion with the military after it became clear that they had lost the elections and were aware of the intention to cook results.

“August 1 is a very sad day in the history of our country; very regrettable for me, but the way I see it, it was a pre-emptive measure to avert what they expected to be a response from those whom they had robbed of electoral victory. It was what I would call a managed explosion… calculated to forestall any kind of protests, especially in the context of results that would be doctored or not real. It was designed to be the platform for the release of fake results and justify a putative attack on innocent citizens,” he said.

Chamisa’s testimony follows that of Presidential Guard commander Brigadier-General Anselem Nhamo Sanyatwe, who few weeks ago told the commission that a national reactional force (NRF) was set up on July 10 ahead of the elections amid intelligence that the MDC had plans to destabilise the country.

The NRF unleased 62 soldiers, armed with AK-47 assault rifles who allegedly shot at protestors, killing six and injuring 24.

Distancing his party from being the architects of the violent protests, which were allegedly led by militants, according to the army and police testimony, Chamisa said he had ‘won’ the polls and had no reason to demonstrate, saying Zanu PF knew they had lost and had printed fresh ballots with the hope of pushing for another election.

“We had won the election; we had bagged it and there was no need for us under those circumstances to do anything that would then cause unnecessary challenges in the context of our country… there were 4 million ballot papers that were printed after July 30 and that can be validated … they were being printed because wrong results were going to be announced, Zec’s figures could not tally,” he said.

Basking in the glare and support of MDC parliamentarians, who thronged the hearing, clapping and ululating as he spoke eloquently, Chamisa declared his innocence saying his party was a democratic and law-abiding institution, and that his hands were clean.

“My resolve is unbreakable and my heart is pure, these hands you see have not spilled blood, these are clean hands, the mouth you see here has never conspired to have a life that is lost on the basis of political violence. We will not walk to State House in the blood of the innocent. The paradox is that the allegations are being made by those whose hands are unclean,” he said.

Police were deployed at the MDC headquarters way ahead of the elections with anti-riot water cannons taking residence at Harvest House, a fact which Sanyatwe in his evidence alluded to, but described it as pre-emptive measure because they had credible intelligence that MDC was planning to unleash violence. Chamisa, however, said these were red flags pointing towards August 1.

“In the context of August 1, this was a plan that was done well ahead by the deployment of water cannons at Harvest House on July 28, on a Saturday. Why would you deploy tanks at Harvest House and not at Zanu PF headquarters? These are both political parties that are in an election but you have already deployed against one and have already worked on a presumption that there is going to be a demonstration that is going to come or emanate from one party and not the other,” he said.

Chamisa said even the manner in which results were announced suggested a grand plan of master-minding electoral grand theft.

“When there was this violence on the August 1, certain people attempted to convince the relatives of the deceased that let the cause of death be stab wounds instead of gunshot wounds. Why was the election result announced at night? Why were the election results announced when (the army had cleared people) from the (CBD)?” he questioned
Chamisa said he did not mobilise or give instructions to demonstrate.

“We did not give any instruction to demonstrate on the first of August. When we make decisions to demonstrate we are an organised party with organs and structures, we don’t just wake up and say go and demonstrate, they have to be meetings… we have demonstrated before and we are going to demonstrate again as we are going to demonstrate on November 29,”

He accused witnesses from State institutions of lying under oath saying they were drivers of national decadency.

“For a nation to thrive, dishonesty must die, deception must cease and tomfoolery must vanish. Such is the case in our circumstances and no nation will survive on the foundation of falsehoods, deceit and deception, I have had opportunity to take a look at some of the testimonies given under oath. People are lying about things that happened in broad daylight,” said Chamisa.

Chamisa told the commission that the MDC, in its 19 years of existence had never used guns and did not have an army and called out the military for concocting lies.

Pushing back on allegations that his party set the ground stage for conflict and violence by arming a military wing in the MDC called the Vanguard, Chamisa said he contested in the polls because he thought that there was a vacancy to become commander-in-chief of Zimbabwe Defence Forces and not the Vanguard.

The MDC national vice-chairperson, Tendai Biti took the commission on a history of state-sponsored violence, arguing that the military has been used by governments from the time of Ian Smith to present day to maintain a grip on political power.

The Gukurahindi massacres in the 1980s were one such occasion, as were the murder of hundreds of MDC supporters.

He asked why Mnangagwa appointed a commission of inquiry to investigate the deaths of seven people, and yet was ignoring the murder of 20 000 people during Gukurahundi by members of the military, whose commanders he said were in the presidency.

“We were very colourful during the elections but we did not cross the line,” said Biti, adding that he feared that Mnangagwa wanted to use the commission’s findings to suppress opposition politics.

66 Comments

  1. The MDC goons are feeling the heat! You don’t recognise ED’s presidency but you appear before a commission set by him. Some idiots vilify Mudzuri for attending a parliamentary meeting with the President while their whole party president & his deputy are appearing before a commission established by the same president . If that is not comic stupidity by a party of severely mentally retarded men & women , then nothing is foolish. To hear Nelson speak , you will not fail to pity him even if your brains are slightly higher that those of a duck. The miserable boy sees himself like a messiah sent by God to save the “stupid” people of Zimbabwe. To imagine that there were people who were not ashamed to clap hands for him as he spit his hogwash shows the depth to which our socialization institutions have fallen as a nation. For what sane well educated people will ululate when a man who has an ambition of becoming president of Zimbabwe is conducting himself like a kindergarten prefect? As for Biti ,he just needs our prayers . He thinks that if he believes that they won, then they must have won! What school did that boy go too? His teachers must be a very disappointed lot. Ndokudzidzisa sandozve! ZIDOFO rinoti , if I believe, then it is!

    1. You are desperately anxious and foolish as you fall into the tiny minority category. Pity you.

      1. Musoni, you only should have told the MDCAs to be mature that’s all. They only know violence since 99.

    2. Wake up and smell the coffee, fool

    3. Musoni you are an enemy of what is right. Your handlers thought President Chamisa was not going to appear and arrest him.He appeared and all their plans come to nothing. President Chamisa laid bare all the evil deeds and plans of these thieves. Did you hear Biti saying some of the names of people killed, tourtured, kidnapped by the junta and if your heart was not touched then you are not human. Chamisa is young and mature thats why he won the election. Your leader was a cabinet since 1980 but did nothing significant as a minister. He is a below average, clueless leader. As old as Mugabe was still he was better than this.

    4. If you call Biti a dofo and sham his teachers yet he is a graduate of University of Zimbabwe law school then you are delusional. For all his faults he managed the purse of the national treasury as finance minister so well and the results are on the wall as the performance of the economy during his tenure speaks volumes. Try calling him other things, but dofo is definitely not the correct thing!!!!

    5. I don”t know why, but I can sense some desperate bitterness by you Musoni.Or is it “thugocracy” that is possessing you?

    6. Thanks to decorum on the part of the ZBC, some of us never even knew that Mangoma was disabled, because they never showed his disability, choosing instead to engage with the content of his character and views.
      But it took Chamisa saying Mangoma should worry about representing ‘other disabled people in Parliament instead of writing letters to Morgan’ for us to say: hold the phone, other disabled people? Only then did we know.
      This is much the same way that we are now being told that Biti is sero-positive, and that somehow this is somewhat relevant to whatever issues might be at hand. Interesting to hear about his Deputy!.

    7. Blind and shameless outrage my friend. Your arguments don’t add up at all! you are just outraged by an otherwise polished and compelling performance by Chamisa and Biti. Shame on you! You belong to the group of state sponsored liars who have been perverting justice by giving false testimonies to the commission. There ios nothing wrong with Chamisa choosing his own battle ground. Its called tactical!!!

    8. A BIG FOOL

  2. Wake up and smell the coffee, fool

  3. pre-planned by who??? what a shame we all saw it unfold and the perpetrators

  4. @ Musoni hautombonyari, pauri ipapo iwe hauna kana National Foundation Certificate or even Certificate of Attendance for any course zvayo. Biti and Chamisa vane zvipo zvavo even maCommissioners vakagutsurira kuti these two guys can articulate their issues clearly. Haisi mhosva yako Musoni hudofo ndihwo hwakazara mumusoro mako. Zvawanyora zvinotaridza paunovata.

    1. iwe ndiwe dofo remunhu Studio77. Even if the commissioners vakagutsiririra musoro does that exonerate biti and chamisa for causing the the 1 August mayhem. Nyangwe akarara pasi kana mu toilet I did not hear him asking for a bed from you. You are are a big fool. You are so engrossed in “zvipo zva chamisa and biti that you have lost all objectivity. Remember these are lawyers and they rehearsed all this.

      1. vanaBasketi mvura yatanga kunaya endai kumunda munorima panekuswera muchitaura nonsense MDC is a party of choice usarwadziva Biti and Chamisa rudadiso iwe tsaga

    2. Nelson Chamisa’s habits of in-securing the bitterness of his followers simile to the birth of rat kittens, they are good and smart at first glance in the first weeks but ugly and vandal when they mature.

  5. God is watching and I know one day we will be free.

  6. I don”t know why, but I can sense some desperate bitterness by you Musoni.Or is it “thugocracy” that is possessing you?

  7. i was wondering why grown up peaple were ululating clapping hands at what was chamisa saying the only thing which i head was just self praising nothing else wotoona vanhu vakuru vachiombera maoko kana kuzviona kuti maturity yaita shoma pana chamisa even the commission so that this guy lacks maturity thats where the only problem is

    1. But how about Zanu PF supporters who clap at dross like Tinongotonga Tichingotonga from their leader and other nonsensical pronouncements.

  8. People like Musoni are a major setback to the advancement of civilization & mankind

  9. Maphozho Saruchera

    Is Chamisa saying that the booze and weed feed to MDC hooligans at Harvest House Hours before the violent demo were purchased by Zanu PF and the military? This boy must have been smoking the left over weed from that day. The Demo he called resulted in the unnecessary losse of life – he must be held accountable, period!

  10. Politicians are another set of people. Those people who were singing and chanting party slogans on August were not supporters? who were they? The commission should invite some of those people who were singing and dancing to testify under oath.

    1. You are seriously on point, None accepts singing or demonstrating-everyone was coming from or going to. None wants to be involved. I thought someone would come upfront and testify of crossing streets with a wheelbarrow full of stones, or saying i was among the singing and the song was written by Nhingi WeKwakati.

  11. I think this is irony on one point you disown the protesters and you say both the protesters and army were Zanu PF and then you went on to say you are sad for the people and then you say it was pre-emptive so basically you are saying Zanu PF send martyrs who chose to go and die on the streets so as to stop your real supporters from protesting. If thats the case why are you sad for the people why did you attend their funerals why did you go to hospitals. Thats high grade fuckery Chamisa and I really want to test what you are smoking th schit is good.

    1. As a leader.

    2. The confusion you are showing is exactly the outcome that was intended by the state actors. The violent element during those demos was clearly planted just the shooting was premeditated.

  12. “The miserable boy sees himself like a messiah sent by God to save the “stupid” people of Zimbabwe”
    Musoni do not insult Zimbabweans. We are not stupid

    1. Chamisa said so himself…

  13. What can supporters of murderers, thugs and thieves say? How many more will be killed or murdered before those who choose to close their eyes, minds and hearts continue to do so? The commission has brought out the facts of how evil the men in “power” are and the whole world can clearly see who the architects of terrorism are? No glory there just shameless, false bravado. Zero out of 10.

  14. Comment…konhai Piki vakamupambirei vanhu veZanu havadi kuti chokwadi chibude pachena

    1. Piki is a disgraced soldier.He must use military titles like Rtd Lt Col.The dude was cashiered(reduced in rank)and discharged with ignomity he is a disgraced soldier.
      Piki haana kana chokwadi chekutaura its sour grapes chete

  15. All I can say is that he nailed his testimony better than concord trial you Zanoid did not expect that it shows that he is a better diplomat than ED which by the way when can we expect the Junta to give their testimony

  16. All I can say is that he nailed his testimony better than concord trial you Zanoid did not expect that it shows that he is a better diplomat than ED which by the way when can we expect the Junta to give their testimony?

  17. The Way Forward Zimbabwe

    In all fairness Chamisa did very well here. I am particularly impressed by the statement he made that “For a nation to thrive, dishonesty must die, deception must cease and tomfoolery must vanish. Such is the case in our circumstances and no nation will survive on the foundation of falsehoods, deceit and deception, I have had opportunity to take a look at some of the testimonies given under oath. People are lying about things that happened in broad daylight,”. It is a pity that Chamisa makes this statement in the context of the August 1 killings, and not so much in the context of the entire governance of the country regarding pensions and insurance service provision, banking including banking by the RBZ, National Budgets, among many other areas of governance in the country. In fact it is a pity that the MDC, as represented by Chamisa did not pitch this issue of falsehoods, deceit and deception etc in the run up to the June 30 elections as part of their election campaign, and demonstrate to the public what they would do to resolve this national culture of deception. Not a mention for instance, was made by MDC of the deception, fraud and falsehoods being made by insurance companies and other pension houses as they try to get away with pensioner benefits. They have not even tried to understand the underlying fraudulent problem with pensions and insurance provision in Zimbabwe, running into upwards of $20 billion. It is in fact MDC’s Archilles heel that it has over the 19 years of its operations not been strategic in key areas of the running of the country – instead just being glib on the important issues. MDC has therefore been put on the defensive by Zanu PF for most of the time including in this Commission – instead of being on the offensive. It is time Chamisa and MDC reviewed their tacs radically rather than superficially.

  18. They were opposition MDC supporters. Chamisa’s focus should be on whether on not his party did not sanction the demonstrators. The Commission’s enquiry should establish who shot the people, which we have no doubt is the army, and who order the army onto the streets. No need to crack our heads on something that should be straightforward.

  19. As it turns out the appearance of Chamisa & Biti at the commission is actually an own goal by zanupf. It’s now crystal clear that Chamisa has ten times better leadership qualities than ED

  20. yaa iwe musoni kutonyora rondedzero yose iyi, warwadziwa, manje wamama, zanu is shit Ed is nt my president, he is yo president stupeti

  21. musoni dzako dzakatamba nevana

  22. yaaa ma comments ema satanist e zanu pano apa soo, kubva maratidza hudhiyabhorosi hwenyu pachena soo, munosvodesa mhani. muri vana satan thats all i cn say, mune nyanga chaidzo, vampires, blood sucking bomboclats.

  23. dza musoni dzakatamba nepwere dzikaresva kudzoserwa, such idiots who comment supporting zanu are the same maggots used to do evil things to zimbos, saka ngozi dzakutovapengesa, theyy cnt tell right and wrong anymore, kungotumwa kuita matuzvi chete

  24. Well done Chamisa and Obama dollar Biti. We heard you young man. Everyone knows who the Zim tormentors are, tormentors from Gukurahundi, abductions of rights activists, murderes of 2008, 2000 land reform chaos, 1 August 2018 shootings of innocent civilians who were unarmed, those who arrest victims of state sponsored violence leaving perpetrators walking free. With such kind of devils Zimbabwe is captured. Zanu and its evil disciples must repent.

  25. Never be given bear and cranko to practise thugocracy, there’s no permanent friend in politics, Chamisa after trying to gain milage on the international community by staging an online televised demo, he labelled his demonstrators ”stupid” people

  26. My take is, either demonstrating on 1 August was wrong or a correct move by citizens, but the shooting of unarmed civilians but the military shows the highest level of dictatorship. And this was done during day light with unformed forces, so i think what this commission should seek to answer is who instructed the soldiers to kill. Coz if people had demonstrated and soldiers didnt kill people there wont be all this. Who sent the solders? Is the main question

  27. kune vanhu vaMwari nevana vaMwari, zanu na ed vanhu vaMwari, mdc na NC vana naMWARI

  28. Chamisa’s accusations of vote rigging to begin with make no sense at all. I am still trying to figure out the source of his “miracle votes” by which he alleges to have beaten Ed. After his party managed a paltry 63 seat in the house of representatives of a total of 210 seats, the rest except of only 2 were taken by the ruling party, who voted him to the extent of beating a ruling party candidate in the presidential poll? With the extent of the polirisation in zimbabwean politics currently, do we have any voters who want Chamisa for the head of state and then dislike Chamisa’s Mps but vote for Zanu Pf ones instead? Do we realy have such “miracle voters” in Zimbabwe? Or does Nelson know something which was happening in zec in his favour which we don’t. Did some juniors in zec promise and even try to rig in his favour? Chamisa’s party by the way said it had connections in zec who used to feed them with some zec secrets of its operations.

  29. Vanhu ve MDC ende you comment online and you are so active on facebook and twitter encouraging Chamisa even in times when its hard, keep it up BUT hamufe makaitonga Zimbabwe kkkkkk…muri ma stupet chaiwo zvakataurwa nemukuru wenyu. Akataura chirungu saka? Anotopanyura chete makatarisa muchi commenta. He incited people via twitter kukafiwa saka anotopanyura chete Zanu yotonga. Chero muka commenta mungaidii Zanu nhai? zvinoperera ipapa pama comments. Pindai ka mutown muite noise munorohwa magaro iwayo kkkkkk…stupid human beings

  30. No pre-planning.We were there in town.We saw the hooligans breaking shops , looting , setting fire on intersections of roads.the worst thing is that the front runners ( hooligans)in the demo were drunk.Its really bad to lie using the bible…lets not play politics using the bible.The man knows the truth

  31. Video footage is there for everyone to see that the MDC Alliance leaders are liable for the August 1 incident. MDC Alliance supporters were captured in that party regalia, they even when to gather at Harvest House where they were receiving instructions, the videos clearly capture MDC youths openly shouting Chamisa and other leaders’ names.

    Now that Nelson Chamisa has been cornered he resorts to making false claims. How can the so called pre-planners of violence instruct MDC supporters from Harvest House?

    1. The reason for deploying water canons at the Harvest House before the pre-planned demonstrations was to instil fear to The mdc so that when they start deploying their militia in front of the Harvest House their story wud be swallowed by all the rat minded fools

    2. Lets not lose focus on the really issue here. That the demonstrators were incited by Chamisa, or were planted by Zanu PF in their bid to steal the vote or they were spontaneous uprisings by citizens who were anxious for ZEC to do justice, all this is beside the point. What ever was the cause of the demonstrations, no one has the right to shoot these citizens. The commission should focus on finding who shot at the civilians and under whose orders. These killers according to the testimonies so far, are either snipers located at high rise buildings (Mpofu) or Vanguard militants (Army General) or ZNA soldiers. It should not take a rocket scientist to figure out which is the true answer.

  32. One thing is certain, dialogue is the way out of the mess our country finds itself in.
    I prey that the Commission in its wisdom, recommends, electoral reforms, public media coverage of all parties without bias, a mechanism that accomodates the opposition in an official capacity and other issues that may bring this deeply divided nation to work together again despite our different political orientation.
    Shouting names at each other will not bring investment, confidance and jobs to the country we need a MidWife from respectable Churches, eminent Statesman of the likes of Chief Emenyuke, Mothlante, Joaquim Chissano to sit our leaders down and focus on the country’s development.
    We have suffered enough and its time to swallow our pride and talk tough to find common ground for posterity’s sake.
    Tendai Biti hit the nail on the heard when he said we have a cycle of 15 years and something happens to bring discord in the country the only was to stop this curse is dialogue and understanding each other.
    ED strikes me as a reasonable Leader and he should be the bridge from the past way of doing things to the new way.

  33. Let us expose all what transpired before, during and after the election although I am very confident that it will not be acted upon in the long run following the route it is taking.

  34. Gwindingwi Rineshumba

    This guy Chamisa is a pathetic sick liar, I thought Pastors are not supposed to lie, all he does, does not reflect anything expected from a Pastor. God looks at the hear. I am not judging you, but I really think you need to repent and be right with God. To think you will lead Zimbabwe one day is a dream that will never come true, I don’t see this happening, paita spirit yaAbsolom pamuri, akada kutora ushe Kuna baba wake David zvine chisimba and was not God’s plan zvakashaya basa, kana muchiziva shoko tarisisai nyaya yaBarabus mudzidze from it, muzvibvunze kuti hamusi Barabus here, manyawi akapihwa mukomana uyu paakaburitswa mutorongo ndomanyawi amukupihwa nevanokutsigirai haana kwaano kusvitsai. Kutapirisa mukanwa aiwa munogona chose asi you will not fool people eventually. Vatsigiri venyu vari kutevera crowd instead of following the cloud, nekuti imi makatorasika. Mukati memoyo wenyu mune unye uye muri kupfungaira neuturu nehasha. Find peace with God modzikamisa hana. Don’t push your own agenda muchida kushandisa zita Mwari, that will never happen. You are trying so hard to arm twist God’s hand to force things to
    go your way. Thank God, He knows the intentions of your heart.

  35. Ma CIO munodei pa platform pano, busy abducting innocent people. Why did you abduct colonel PIKI. Idiots

  36. All this chaos was a result of rowdy violent demos, Alliance leaders incited members to demos against ZEC…their leadership nw calls them #STUPID demos, the same say it was pre planned.

  37. CHAMISA ANODHUVA KUWANZA NEMHA SAME SAME NEMAGENERAL
    4 MILLION BALLOT PAPERS AKADZIWANEPI KUCONCOURT AKAENDA NE A ALF BAKED CASE

  38. Chamisa is the one who pre-planned the August 1 incident. During his 80 plus rallies he was urging his supporters to defend their vote. How were they going to defend their vote? Obviously through carrying out violent protests so that the Presidential election will be nullified giving room for a re-run or going for a GNU thus he would get into Government through the backdoor. On the other hand President Emmerson Mnangagwa was preaching peace throughout. It was this peace which enabled Chamisa to hold rallies in rural areas for the first time. Chamisa was simply seeking relevance before the Commission.

  39. What would you expect Chamisa and Biti to say. Right now they are saying they are not to blame or responsible for the August 1 deaths. The good thing about technology and social media is that their words are still there as evidence, where they incited people to go to the streets and that they would not accept defeat in the presidential elections. So refusing to accept their wrong doing now is just a sign of immaturity. Biti and Chamisa are causing unrest in the country.

  40. Chamisa told the Comnissioners that no MDC supporters was killed during the demonstrations and at the same time he accuses Zanu PF and the military of shooting the demonstrators. If that was the case, then they could have targeted MDC supporters not innocent civillians.

  41. @Givy the good thing is that videos os soldiers shooting innocent civilians are still there on the internate and in high defination how I love technology hold record on youtube,facebook or instagram and the whole world will see even if you smash the phone

  42. On the 15 Nov 2018, I said, among other things, “Nelson and Tendai Biti must hammer the Commission on Wednesday. This is their chance to put the record straight. Never let a serious crisis go to waste.
    “Turn the tables”.
    The two have done very well indeed. Emmerson Mnangagwa must be cursing why he instituted a Commission – it has backfired in spectacular fashion.
    The military junta will not recover from all this.

  43. @Tafara Shumba the army lacks tacticks when it comes with dealing with urban warfare they only know to attack not knowing that they would be collateral damage in terms of innocent civilians hence why the USA has the S.W.A.T. team (Special Weapons And Tacticks)

  44. According to Linda Masarira nhasi MDCA is intolerant. Its true sezvandaona pano. Its’s true that a lot of atrocities were committed by Mugabe and his ZANU and we can not label ED for that. Since ED took over, ow many MDC members were killed? Chamisa said the 6 killed were not MDC. Politics is a dirty game for sure. The security forces denied killing the civilians and on the other hand Chamisa and his MDC denied inciting the demos that led to killing of innocent people. However MDC wants the army to admit that it killed people and on the other hand the army wants MDC to admit that it caused violence. Both failed the credibility test. Those that demonstrated were USED. Politicians use and dump u. Regai tione maSTUPID people akarehwa naChamisa vachipinda mustreet on Thursday.

  45. Panyo penyu,matuzvi.vana vemahure vasina hunhu.vasina tsitsi.vasina basa nehupenyu hwevanhu.munhu anonetsa anongoda pfuti.ngatingoitai zvepfuti zvipere.Tsvagirai akafa achifunga kuti achatonga nerunyararo.hazvishande panoda pfuti apa.

  46. 【楽天市場】総合案内所

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