The politics of labelling: Zimbabwe’s tribal problem

The past few days have witnessed the closest we have been to a tribal meltdown in a while, as ethnicity has been the main topic in both the opposition and the ruling party.

BY NQABA MATSHAZI

For decades now, ethnicity has been an issue, which, as a country we are afraid to deal with because somehow we believe it is divisive, yet pretending it is not an issue could be more dangerous and divisive in the not so distant future.

Matters came to a head when MDC-T deputy president, Thokozani Khupe strongly opposed the formation of MDC Alliance, arguing some of the coalition parties do not bring anything to the table and before anyone interrogated what she was saying, she was accused of being a tribalist.

I have written before that I believe Khupe is on the wrong side of history on the coalition issue, but calling her a tribalist because she did not agree with what the majority want is quite primitive and borders on intolerance.

The same happened when Tendai Biti fell out with his colleagues in the People’s Democratic Party, he accused his secretary general, Gorden Moyo and everyone supporting him, of tribalism and again an opportunity for an inquisition into what led to the fallout between the two was lost because of a crude propensity for name-calling.

I also have had the misfortune of being labelled a tribalist because I did not agree with popular opinion or I have criticised a political leader, who just happens not to belong to the same tribe as I.

On the few times that I have not been labelled a tribalist, I have been called a Central Intelligence Organisation operative simply for daring to criticise MDC-T leader, Morgan Tsvangirai.

Excuse me, but it seems we are creating a sub-class of people, who because they do not belong to the majority tribe, should not criticise or have independent thought, simply because they belong to a different ethnicity.

When Biti himself broke away from Tsvangirai it was because they supposedly differed on principle, the MDC-T leader was a dictator and had led the party to a comprehensive electoral defeat.

Contrast this with when Moyo differed with Biti; suddenly principle is thrown out of the window and the first thing that we hear is that Moyo is a tribalist.

Quite simplistic thinking if you ask me.

The same thing happened when MDC leader, Welshman Ncube parted ways with Tsvangirai, suddenly the Senate vote, which the MDC-T leader overturned undemocratically, was seen as irrelevant and the subject for discussion was Ncube’s ethnicity and tribalism.

This is how primitive we are as a society, where we prefer ethnic differences to define us, rather than the substance or ideas that we bring to the table.

In such cases, labelling someone a tribalist could be meant to be deflect from substantial issues, which would have been raised and is quite a lazy way to avoid political debate.

MDC-T legislator, Eddie Cross has also waded into the debate on tribalism in the country in the most unhelpful and divisive way, by claiming that the Ndebele in PDP and MDC-T are demanding special treatment on the basis of their tribe.

Cross has a propensity to put his foot in the mouth on issues that he has no knowledge about and could be a liability to MDC-T, considering that his parliamentary seat is in Bulawayo.

The same thing is happening across the aisle in the ruling party, where this time the tribalism is more pronounced within the Shona subgroup.

Some people of Karanga origin say it is their time to rule because a Zezuru has been in power for a long time.

I cannot speak much on the differences within the Shona subgroupings, but my thinking on this subject is that it is tragic that power should be seen to be transferred on ethnic grounds rather than leadership qualities.

This is the tragedy of politics in this country, as elections are now seen as a tribal census, to see who has more votes because they belong to what tribe rather than a contest of ideas.

A person’s tribe should be the last thing to look at during elections, but rather what they bring to the table.
On the other hand, the Ndebele also cry foul that it seems the highest they can go is the deputy position in any organisation or political party, with the top post reserved for the Shona.

What this points to is that Zimbabwe has a tribal problem, which it is uncomfortable to deal with but which continues to haunt the country.

We pretend that there is unity in the country, but this is all a façade, a fragile one for that matter, which is quickly exposed when there is a crisis.

Clan based thinking is the reason why the country will continue to be rooted at the bottom of all development indices, as instead, we should be expending our energies on ensuring that the best woman or man gets the job, not because of where they come from.

What we need as Zimbabweans is that when we see a leader, we have respect for them because we believe they are the best for the job and not bother about their surname or where they come from.

Disagreeing with someone of a different tribe does not necessarily make one a tribalist, but rather makes them an independent thinker, who will not just follow sheepishly.

It is quite sad that almost 40 years after independence, leaders can easily resort to using tribe as a differentiator, as this was a tactic for the colonisers, whose strategy was clearly to divide and rule.

That we chose to hold on to this strategy to divide ourselves, speaks volumes of how we continue to hold onto the colonial mentality, no matter how destructive it is.

A time should come where we deal with uncomfortable issues honestly, in the hope of creating a better future, where ethnicity will just be a hereditary issue, rather than what defines how far a person can go in life.

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36 Comments

  1. I am very disappointed by your dishonest article
    One: Zimbabwe cannot be made to be of one tribe
    Two: Each tribe has a different language, culture and traditions that cannot be dominated out of existence by another
    Three: The fact that we converse in English is a clear indication that , he who is the ruler must impose their language on the vanquished
    Four: Do not be apologetic yet you know in your heart that ,you would surround yourself with your own people(home boys) if you were president , in fact you would be a fool not to do that-how can you live your uncles cousins to suffer when you are the king and bring in people who you do not know who speak a strange tongue to sit on the table with you- you are liar
    Five: You also talk about this strange thing called ,best man for the job-that does not exist look at your country,who is buying cars worth millions.you are obviously delving into politics when you have no clue what it is all about -it all about capturing and controlling the resources of the for your own benefit
    Six: Lift up your own tribe and stop pipe dreaming of a tribe less political system – if you are minority you shall ever be a slave to the larger tribe-until your tribe forms their own country so that they rule themselves

    1. To the contrary, thumbs up to the author, honesty and sincerity, that is what your article is about.London the capital of England has a mayor of Pakistan dissent.Microsoft CEO is of Indian dissent. That’s how progressive some countries are, the best man for the job and results show on the ground. We will for ever be stuck in our tribal dominance contests as country with that kind of backward thinking.

      In 1994 I was a student at UZ when a youngman from Matebeleland of Shona dissent was clear the best candidate for the SRC presidence. Five candidates had to be withdrawn so as to have one Shona candidate as this youngman was deemed not to be Shona enough. That is the night an organisation Sangano Mhunumutapa lead by Lawrence Chakaredza was formed,to defend Shona superiority.

  2. True, i vehemently differs with the author’s opinions for multiple reasons.
    First, Zimbabwe is not a Shona and Ndebele state as you opined rather there are so many tribes ie venda, korekore, ndau, etc. All these people have a say in the governorship of this country as prescribed in the supreme law of the land. Whoever has a the legal backing to support, form or join political party of choice.
    Second, the differences experienced in those political parties mentioned has nothing to do with tribe but protocol and procedure. Each party has its own code of conduct that governs all functions. Members are entitled to adhere so all the people you mentioned broke the rules of their parties. and doing so requires action which has nothing to do with tribe.
    Third, Thokozani Khupe, for instance stage-managed violence in order to score selfish gains and such is the game of politics. Now, it is the prerogative of our media to apply thoughtful, thorough and investigative approach on publication rather than relying on rumours.
    Fourth, people misconstrued democracy and constitutionalism. Democracy does not guarantee anyone to break the rules of the game. Where on earth have you seen a subordinate firing his boss? worse of it, it is done by those who masquerade as the learned ( PHD holders). when their schemes crumble they point and blame the so called tribalism. but where is it coming from?

  3. This commentator has just wasted my time! He/she seemed emotionally charged and has a disturbing sense of self-righteousness. To begin with, tribalism is real in Zimbabwe. It actually started way back before liberation war fighters were not even certain if the struggle would succeed! We all know how acrimonious it was when liberation movements parted ways. Some cdes paid the price with their dear lives. How important was tribe? I do not by any mean sanitize or glorify tribal politics but I am just reminding my learned commentator that its real in Zimbabwe. lets disccuss issues one by one. First to be named was Ncube, a a whole professor who has consistently failed to gunner any seat in his own backyard, why is that so? I think one very good answer is that the Ndebele people are not so much concerned with tribe as with change. So they consistently put their vote where they felt such a change will become a reality!! for that reason they have, and continue to ditch their own homeboy Ncube because they have a bigger picture which transcends tribalism, a picture for Zim. I salute them!!!! Now come Khupe. If the Ndebele people ignore a whole professor of law, who is Ncube in their way? If they punished Ncube for being petty, whats there for them to spare Khupe? The Ndebele people are not tribel, take that down your throat!!! They have voted for Shona people since time immemorial! But their leaders have proven to be tribal. That’s a fact. initially, for Ncube I don’t think the senate thing was anything to go by. It was a case of intellectuals vs the non-intellectuals with the opposition body politic. That why the split did not end with Ncube but Biti followed similar footsteps! Khupe to now claim that no need for coalition because Matebeleland has been delivering leaves a lot. Matebeleland is not Zimbabwe and MPs are not the executive! Personally I am not an ardent supporter of this coalition thing (watch the space, I will drop a paper on that soon), but I thing the approach is tribal. Conclusion: We all don’t like tribalism but that doesn’t mean its there. 2. if someone is clearly acting on tribal grounds, we should not hesitate to say so because we hate tribalism. 3. Every effect has a cause. 4. in the latest case of Khupe and Moyo, if anyone has a bigger picture its not far-fetched that there is little in the way of change which we ll yearn for in the way of what they claim to stand for! In that case any observer, even neutral, is inclined to understand them within a tribal context! Mr Writer, GO BACK, SOBER UP AND THINK THINGS THROUGH. DEMOCRACY SHOULD BE MORE THAN FREEDOM OF DISSENT AND DIFFERENCE!IT SHOULD ALSO BE UNDERSTOOD WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE NATIONAL QUESTION, THE BIG PICTURE!!!!!!

    The Preacher Ends Here!

  4. is this an ‘article’ intended to convey anything or just an ‘article’ written?
    Nqaba … please!!!

  5. What I mostly see is ndebele/zezuru fights I have rarely seen an article from a karanga saying its our time except when a ndebele or a zezuru says so. When people in zanupf say ED must take over its not because he is karanga but his position in the party. Surely you cannot expect a normal person to say Kasukuwere takeover considering what position he is in the party. Mphoko was just picked into seniority above Kembo Mohadi and Khaya Moyo so to many who have been in zanupf is just a junior rewarded for what he did in Moza when he dumped his fellow Zapu cadres and remained behind else nothing else to talk about him. So whether ED was manyika, zezuru or ndebele he is more poised to takeover than the others.

    1. Wezhira wezhara

      A very objective comment @Vembuya. The writer is the one who brings in tribal sentiments alongside his backers who I believe are Mugabe and his G40,yes Mugabe himself is the proponent of G40. His wife was singing Zezuru unconquerable but he never said anything. Munangagwa as it stands is the most senior person in Zanu PF even during the time of Mujuru Joice. He has a practical approach to good governance unlike mukuru uyu anoita maPopulist policies to an extend of protecting thieves in Government. People like Vembuya should be given space to write articles like these ones.

  6. i think the article is not conclusive enough as i thought you had more to write! This country is very tribal. and it will remain so for years to come. Look at the shonas holding positions in government,parastatals,army,police,prisons,newspapers. How many ndebele permanent secretaries are there-even in ministries with a ndebele minister? When mutambara was defeated by Welshman for the MdcN presidency he refused to vacate the seat as principal and mugabe protected him. There was no room for a ndebele in the high table of principals!Today khuphe,Gordon are labelled as tribalists!really because they dared to differ. Perhaps its time to cut to the chase and stop pretending ndebeles and shonas can stay and work together coz some tribe will always be inferior. Khuphe and co should link up with Gordon,Dabengwa,Nkosana, Welshman and form a party that will sweep all matabeleland seats and steal some in midlands. they will be called a regional party but so what!The shona leadership has killed the country. You then begin to see and understand the thinking behind the Mthwakazi state.

  7. Comment…Balanced analysis

  8. francisco junior zenko

    nqaba u have revealed your stupid tribalistic character… to heaven with you mr tribalist.. ithank God that i am not like you

  9. Lets Open Brains

    One of the greatest colonial projects- divide Africa into tribes & they will never rest fighting each other. i sometimes wonder if, we,black people are sub-human?

  10. An old woman is always uneasy when dry bones are mentioned. That tribalism is rife openly manifests in the above comments. Tribalism is a ticking time bomb especially in Africa where politics revolve around personalities rather than policies. We have had instances where it has been overblown to ethnic cleansing like the 1966 Nigerian anti-Igbo programme and the 1994 Rwandan Tutsi massacre. A similar exercise swept over 1000 Kenyans in 2008. Unless we become patriotic enough to defend our countries jealously, we shall always succumb along tribal lines. It goes without saying that tribalism is an African disaster!

  11. What you should have included in this article is the need for devolution. It is already in the constitution and zanu has drag us into this mess. No one is talking about as if it was a Matabeleland and Manicaland problem. Unity will only come once power is devolved to the regions Njokweni.

  12. That tribalism is rife cannot be overemphasized. Tribalism is a ticking time bomb especially in Africa where politics revolve around personalities rather than policies. We have had instances where it has been overblown to ethnic cleansing like the 1966 Nigerian anti-Igbo programme and the 1994 Rwandan Tutsi massacre. A similar exercise swept over 1000 Kenyans in 2008. Unless we become patriotic enough to defend our countries jealously, we shall always succumb along tribal lines. It goes without saying that tribalism is an African disaster.

  13. That tribalism is rife cannot be overemphasized. Tribalism is a ticking time bomb especially in Africa where politics revolve around personalities rather than policies. We have had instances where it has been overblown to ethnic cleansing like the 1966 Nigerian anti-Igbo programme and the 1994 Rwandan Tutsi massacre. A similar exercise swept over 1000 Kenyans in 2008. Unless we become patriotic enough to defend our countries jealously, we shall always succumb along tribal lines. It goes without saying that tribalism is an African disaster.

  14. balanced equation

  15. Comment…A good commentary overall, Mqaba, but l have question or two. You remind us that tribal thinking exists and we must not pretend otherwise. Why then criticize Cross for implying the same.? Then we have the issue of presidents / vice presidents.
    I have known our football to be led by Nelson Chirwa and Ndumiso Gumede. Why did Dabengwa opt out of the presidential race in 2008 and supported Makoni? Then there is a new leader Mutambara ( non Ndebele) ahead of Ncube (Ndebele). If that was tribalism, who is the culprit? Eddie Cross was not very wrong.

  16. Nqaba Matshaz:you are absolutely right, but itz all abt time,time will wipe out all these tribal tendencies;god is the maker of all tribes on the face of the earth& itz in his ways how to maneuver all this to safe ends.Most humans are like children(primitive if I can borrow yr own language)but thru times of generations will evolve to more civilised & advanced stages where racial issues will be of no importance.We have a living example in America where Obama became the first black person to become a president of the USA but previously no white man would a vote a black man to the presidency of the USA,u must understand the white people are in the majority in the US electorate.Political parties in Zim fear that since the shonas are in the majority in the zim electorate a ndebele person at the top is a sure ticket for loss since the shonas will hesitate to vote for a ndebele person thru tribal attitudes but however leaders shld not use this theory in order to lead people in the correct direction.What Tsvangirai did over the Khupe issue is completely wrong-itz the leaders in general who must tend people towards correct directions by their very actions.So whatz needed is only effort especially on the part of leaders-our nation will be one in mind & soul,when civilisation& trust take the better of us

  17. We can hardly subscribe to the writer’s article by arguing from our tribal cocoons. An old woman is always uneasy when dry bones are mentioned. Tribalism, a national disaster, is rife and a ticking time bomb that has blown to ethnic cleansing in some countries. To meet their selfish ends, leaders have divided us along tribal lines subjecting the country to a volalite political atmosphere. We should view ourselves from a national angle and guard the sovreignty of our nation jealously. The sooner we shed our tribal garbs to heal and reconcile the nation, the better.

  18. Please editor, may you block this writer from writing anything about tribalism forthwith. Does he have nothing else to talk about apart from tribalism. Please give us break. We have Shona, Ndebele, and other blood in us so stop creating imaginations about that trivial issue.

  19. Please editor, may you block this writer from writing anything about tribalism forthwith. Does he have nothing else to talk about apart from tribalism. Please give us break. We have Shona, Ndebele, and other blood in us so stop creating imaginations about that trivial issue. Please!!!

  20. Please bear with us editor, ndapota

  21. Spot on Nqaba you said it all although you left out someclear cut examples of tribalism in our country . But all those not agreeing with you here are not From Mat the area hit most by tribalism they just argue and blame you a victim of tribalism for reasons known by them . Every time someone very Mat says something about tribalism pple who are not from this area get emotional and blame the victim and that is stupid and very dangerous although we all know they benefited from tribalism since 1980 .Big up Nqaba

  22. Barack Obama became the first black person to be voted in by the majority white electorate into the presidency of the USA-a clear indication that thru civilisations, people will break beyond racial limitations & see every individual for what he or she is.In America it took greater leadership by the democratic party to fearlessly present Obama to the presidency of the USA,but however amid racial undertones by some elements within the party;thus what leadership is all abt;Tsvangirai has messed it up;he has lost a chance to show leadership by doing it again in the face of the aftermath of the 1980 experience when the results of the 1980 elections showed racial lines & Dr Nkomo lost elections only on tribal grounds;Tsvangirai has missed a chance to do it again & succeed just like the democrats in USA.It actually does happen;it only requires leadership & more daring by political parties organisations-a ndebele person can b elected to the presidency of zimbabwe-bec the electorate can change n time.Correct leadership in the campaigning is only needed

  23. The guilty are afraid.

  24. HAILE MAZILANKATHA

    Tribalism is a wisdom of fools.People who cant see yonder than the brain wash education of the white man Divide and rule is a legacy that Cecil Rhodes and his Jesuits left behind for the blacks to endure.Learn to live as one , AIDS from America is killing us all regardless of tribe.A united Africa is what we want not this bullshit mentality of PROMOTING THIS SLAVISH MENTALITY.
    In future this white man politics should be phased out.God made us all unless if there are other languages from other planets.United we stand divided we fall.
    Remember what you call a tribe is a language , totems are tribes.

  25. zvataurwa nemunyori ndezvekuti nyaya haisi yerudzi asi yemerit khupe arikutiii?vepdp varikutiii?veyekwa mai mujuru varikutiii?zvavarikutaura ndiyo nyaya not kuti rudzi zvikutaurwa naeddie cross.chii chasiyira biti vatsvangirai?chii nawelshman ncube?hazvisi zverudzi?sei tsvangirai tikuti anofanira kuva commander in chief of zna?ndiyo yatiri kuti merit not kuti mushona ndisave kwete ndiko saka zanu iri kuti vaMugabe ndivo vatinoda sei vachidaro iye ave harahwa merit kwete kuti mushona.peter ndlovu is a legend not becoz he is ndebele but he played outstandingly.adam ndlovu akava muteam kwete nekuti aive mundebele or hama yapeter asi it was on merit.mugabe sei achi wedzera magenerals ake makore pazvigaro?vatevedzeri vavo mandebele zvitarisisei.so munyori ave professional mukunyora kwake.tarisai thsolotsho declaration yaive yekuti sei mukadzi apihwa hupresident isu tiripo musangano ukati merit.gideon moyo akanzi najonso haana merit vakadzokorora maelections vakamupa chigaro futi not because mundebele but on merit.so imi macommenter against the writer u responded on emotions rather on logic ndiko saka america nebritain vari kumberi nekuti unosarudzwa based on merit.kukenya election yakarambwa based on merit kwete kuti rudzi.ndiro dambudziko whether u are ndebele or shona kuti tinosarudza based not on merit but on tribal zvino anyora atiexposer senyika chiripo todiii zvipere?to editor in chief l salute this man well articulated n l believe he deserves an award he wrote proffessionally

  26. This time around, Nqaba Matshazi lost it. Eddie Cross was just pointing at what has become an inherent thing among Ndebele leaders in the opposition parties in Zimbabwe – scuttling any hopes of a resounding victory against Zanu PF by splitting just before a major election. History should serve us well here – look at what happened as a result of the split in 2005 – all that was caused by some among the Ndebele who want their egos to be massaged. I for one don not believe Ncube’s, Khupe’s, Gorden Moyo’s, Dabengwa’s etc views are representative of the Ndebele people. Those are their individual views. Watch this space to see if Ndebeles will vote for the above cited if they decide to stand on their own in the upcoming 2018 elections – they will be defeated. At least Ncube realized the folly of his actions and retraced his way back to the mainstream MDC. What are needed are national leaders who represent interests of all the different groups found in Zimbabwe i.e Venda, Nambya, Kalanga, Tonga, Barwe, Chewa, Ndebele, Shona etc. Of course the Ndebele and Shona are much more numerous than the others but that should not be a license to trample on their interests. We need all-inclusive leaders who will represent all the ethnic groups and by the way, Mnangagwa is not a good candidate for ethnic integration. Love him or hate him, the president was spot on when he said Mnangagwa and company hounded the late vice- president Muzenda from Midlands region on a tribal card. On that, Ngwena is not presidential material.

  27. This time around, Nqaba Matshazi lost it. Eddie Cross was just pointing at what has become an inherent thing among Ndebele leaders in the opposition parties in Zimbabwe – scuttling any hopes of a resounding victory against Zanu PF by splitting just before a major election. History should serve us well here – look at what happened as a result of the split in 2005 – all that was caused by some among the Ndebele who want their egos to be massaged. I for one don not believe Ncube’s, Khupe’s, Gorden Moyo’s, Dabengwa’s etc views are representative of the Ndebele people. Those are their individual views. Watch this space to see if Ndebeles will vote for the above cited if they decide to stand on their own in the upcoming 2018 elections – they will be defeated. At least Ncube realized the folly of his actions and retraced his way back to the mainstream MDC. What are needed are national leaders who represent interests of all the different groups found in Zimbabwe i.e Venda, Nambya, Kalanga, Tonga, Barwe, Chewa, Ndebele, Shona etc. Of course the Ndebele and Shona are much more numerous than the others but that should not be a license to trample on their interests. We need all-inclusive leaders who will represent all the ethnic groups and by the way, Mnangagwa is not a good candidate for ethnic integration. Love him or hate him, the president was spot on when he said Mnangagwa and company hounded the late vice- president Muzenda from Midlands region on a tribal card. On that, Ngwena is not presidential material.

  28. What a deliberate if naughty twist…..Never head Karangas say say that, Mphoko also frequantly uses that false attack line on Karangas…
    The Karanga bone is that VP Mnangagwa has been under sustained assault since appointment for no other reason other than him being Karanga.

  29. Iyatshisa lindaba oyibambileyo mfanekhaya yikho ubona sokunuka inyama yomuntu enkundleni. But don’t be intimidated you are well within your rights of freedom of expression and directing the nation towards addressing and not ignoring critical issues which divide us. Continue to agitate the national discourse to such issues as sweeping them under the carpet will mean they will arise in the next generations with greater venom. What you are raising is a real issue of the perpetual labelling of Ndebele people as tribalist and their parties as regional, a label which is not tagged on Shona parties, that is a bone of contention which reveals the fabric of the nation under the influence of R.G. Mugabe. You also hold the power of education abantu besintwini on their behaviours that propagate their subjugation to second class citizens they must rise and stand for themselves and their own because we deceive ourselves when we assume that someone else will fight for our cause. Yithina okumele sizimele simele futhi labantwabethu.

  30. There is a certain group of people who easily raise the racial and tribal card when things do not go their way. Until recently, i didn’t even know the late VP Msika was from Chiweshe and Korekore (I assume). Kembo Mohadi might not even be Ndebele. You wonder were people like Priscilla Misihairambwi fall, people of mixed tribes. There are many Ndebeles in Harare who have become Shonalised and there are many Shonas who are now more Ndebele because of where they stay. We can never run away from who we are but that should not separate us. You can be a Shona/Ndebele and very proud but you should appreciate that it does not mean you are superior. It is that superiority complex which caused the liberation struggle.

  31. muonazvangu uridofo

  32. Seems many people missed the whole gist of the article. The writer is simply calling people to question the motive of differences that arise between groups before placing an sort of label on the ‘opposing/offended’ group.

    That tribalism exists is true and seems to be perpetuated mostly by older generation. The younger generation is in danger of regurgitating this evil if it is not dealt with decisively.

    Good piece Matshazi

  33. of late the only person who agitate tribalism in Zim is VP Mphoko..ever since he became vice president whenever he makes a comment…tribalism comes.surely previous vps from zapu side never mentioned this…look at his misdirected and misinformed press release against mnangagwa..he even touched on tribalism something mnangagwa never ever touched on during his Gutu address…it is this man who wants to bring tribal conflict in our peace loving country.on the ground ndex..shona..Tonga..nambya..venda pepo are marrying each other..staying peacefully as relatives..but these politicians always bring us back.

  34. UCross cannot represent the people he say they are a problem. Dinga eyinye indawo baba. Cross’ s views are biased and show element of bootlicking as compared to objectivity

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